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[2012.03.03]辐射尘中 幸免于难

2012-3-4 11:00| 发布者: migmig| 查看: 9380| 评论: 3|原作者: Medea

摘要: 鸟类能够通过进化应对核事故的残余影响
Radiation and evolution
核辐射与进化


辐射尘中 幸免于难

鸟类能够通过进化应对核事故的残余影响
090 Science and technology - Radiation and evolution.mp3

Mar 3rd 2012 | from the print edition



那乌鸦并没飞去,它仍然栖息,仍然栖息——埃德加·爱伦·坡 《乌鸦》

去年,地震和海啸引发了福岛第一原子能发电站核泄漏事故,在国际核与辐射事件等级标准(INES)中被评为第七级;没有比这情况还糟的分级了。核辐射对生物有害,而长时间高水平的本底辐射对生态系统有何影响,人们还知之甚少。为了研究这个问题,南卡罗莱纳大学的Timothy Mousseau和巴黎第十一大学的Anders Moller率团队着手比较在两个INES七级事故事发地(福岛核电站和1986年发生事故的乌克兰小镇切尔诺贝利)附近栖息的鸟类种群。结果出人意料。他们发现随着时间迁移,似乎有些鸟类发展出了对核辐射的耐受力。

福岛和切尔诺贝利相距7,000余公里(4350英里),不过Mousseau和同事们很快发现,两地的鸟类种群有共同之处。两地均属温带气候,周围环绕着农田和森林,鸟类的习性和需求相似。经过进一步调查,研究人员发现两地有14种相同的鸟类,包括家燕、大山雀、大苇莺、鵟、松鸦。既然情况如此相似,比较两地生物对核辐射的反应(福岛:短期反应,切尔诺贝利:长期反应)自然应当具有启发意义。

2011年7月,研究人员清点并鉴定了福岛核电站附近300个地点的鸟类。这些地点的辐射水平低至0.5毫西弗/小时,高至35毫西弗/小时。作为对照,牙医给患者拍X光片的辐射量很少超过0.05毫西弗。他们将结果与在切尔诺贝利周围采集的数据进行了比对。这些数据采集于2006年~2009年间,采集地点的辐射水平与福岛相似。

研究结果发表在《环境污染》杂志上:在辐射水平为35毫西弗/小时的地方,鸟类平均数量比0.5毫西弗/小时的地方少了将近1/3。这是合情合理的:辐射水平高的地方,生物更容易生病死亡,更难繁衍后代。但是,当研究者比对两地共有的14种鸟类时,发现在同样的辐射水平下,福岛的鸟类下降数量几乎达到了切尔诺贝利的两倍。

人们还不清楚这个现象的原因。也许是因为福岛的放射性核素成分对鸟类更危险。不过Mousseau博士称,这更可能是因为进化已经在切尔诺贝利周围的鸟群中起作用了。不能适应本底辐射的鸟类死亡,对辐射有耐受力的基因则得以传承。而福岛的鸟类才刚刚开始面辐射环境中的生存进化挑战。

from the print edition | Science and technology

感谢译者 Medea 点击此处阅读双语版

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引用 Medea 2012-3-4 09:14
本帖最后由 Medea 于 2012-3-4 09:16 编辑

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题图下面引用《乌鸦》中的句子颇有深意。所以在这里把原文和一个比较通行的翻译版本粘贴出来给大家参考^_^

The Raven   

乌鸦

Edgar Allan Poe

【美】埃德加·爱伦·坡

曹明伦 译


Once upon a midnight dreary, while I pondered, weak and weakry.  
Over many a quint and curious volume of forgotten lore.  
While I nodded, nearly napping, suddenly there came a tapping,  
As of some one rapping, rapping at my chamber door.  
"Tis some visitor," I muttered, "tapping at my chamber door--  
                                     Only this, and nothing more."  

从前一个阴郁的子夜,我独自沉思,慵懒疲竭,
沉思许多古怪而离奇、早已被人遗忘的传闻——
当我开始打盹,几乎入睡,突然传来一阵轻擂,
仿佛有人在轻轻叩击,轻轻叩击我的房门。
“有人来了,”我轻声嘟喃,“正在叩击我的房门——
唯此而已,别无他般。”

Ah, distinctly I remember it was in the bleak December,
And each separate dying ember wrought its ghost upon the floor.
Eagerly I wished the morrow; -vainly I had tried to borrow
From my books surcease of sorrow(1)-sorrow for the lost Lenore-
For the rare and radiant maiden whom the angels name Lenore-
                                      Nameless here for evermore

哦,我清楚地记得那是在萧瑟的十二月;
每一团奄奄一息的余烬都形成阴影伏在地板。
我当时真盼望翌日;——因为我已经枉费心机
想用书来消除悲哀——消除因失去丽诺尔的悲叹——
因那被天使叫作丽诺尔的少女,她美丽娇艳——
在这儿却默默无闻,直至永远。

And the silken sad uncertain rustling of each purple curtain
Thrilled me-filled me with fantastic terrors never felt before;
So that now, to still the beating of my heart, I stood repeating
" ' Tis some visitor entreating entrance at my chamber door-
Some late visitor entreating entrance at my chamber door;-
                                      This it is and nothing more.

那柔软、暗淡、飒飒飘动的每一块紫色窗布
使我心中充满前所未有的恐怖——我毛骨悚然;
为平息我心儿悸跳,我站起身反复叨念
“这是有人想进屋,在叩我的房门——
更深夜半有人想进屋,在叩我的房门;——
唯此而已,别无他般。”

Presently my soul grew stronger; hesitating then no longer,
"Sir," said I, "or Madam, truly your forgiveness I implore;
But the fact is I was napping, and so gently you came rapping,
And so faintly you came tapping, tapping at my chamber door,
That I scarce was sure I heard you"--here I opened wide the door;
                                      Darkness there, and nothing more.

很快我的心变得坚强;不再犹疑,不再彷徨,
“先生,”我说,“或夫人,我求你多多包涵;
刚才我正睡意昏昏,而你来敲门又那么轻,
你来敲门又那么轻,轻轻叩击我的房门,
我差点以为没听见你”——说着我拉开门扇;——
唯有黑夜,别无他般。

Deep into that: darkness peering, long I stood there wondering, fearing
Doubting, dreaming dreams no mortal ever dared to dream before;
But the silence was unbroken, and the darkness gave no token,
And the only word there spoken was the whispered word, "Lenore!"
This I whispered, and an echo murmured back the word, " Lenore! "
                                      Merely this, and nothing more.

凝视着夜色幽幽,我站在门边惊惧良久,
疑惑中似乎梦见从前没人敢梦见的梦幻;
可那未被打破的寂静,没显示任何迹象,
“丽诺尔?”便是我嗫嚅念叨的唯一字眼,
我念叨“丽诺尔!”,回声把这名字轻轻送还,
唯此而已,别无他般。

Then into the chamber turning, all my soul within me burning,
Soon I heard again a tapping somewhat louder than before.
"Surely," said I, "surely that is something at my window lattice;
Let me see, then, what thereat is, and this mystery explore-
Let my heart be still a moment and this mystery explore;
                                      'Tis the wind, and nothing more!

我转身回到房中,我的整个心烧灼般疼痛,
很快我又听到叩击声,比刚才听起来明显。
“肯定,”我说,“肯定有什么在我的窗棂;
让我瞧瞧是什么在那里,去把那秘密发现——
让我的心先镇静一会儿,去把那秘密发现;——
那不过是风,别无他般!”

Open here I flung the shutter, when, with many a flirt and flutter.
In there stepped a stately raven of the saintly days of yore;
Not the least obeisance made he; not an instant stopped or stayed he;
But, with mien of lord or lady, perched above my chamber door-
Perched upon a bust of Pallas(2) just above my chamber door-
                                      Perched, and sat, and nothing more.

我猛然推开窗户,心儿扑扑直跳就像打鼓,
一只神圣往昔的健壮乌鸦慢慢走进我房间;
它既没向我致意问候;也没有片刻的停留;
而以绅士淑女的风度,栖在我房门的上面——
栖在我房门上方一尊帕拉斯半身雕像上面——
栖坐在那儿,仅如此这般。

Then this ebony bird beguiling my sad fancy into smiling,
By the grave and stern decorum of the countenance it wore,
"Though thy crest be shorn and shaven, thou," I said, "art sure no craven,
Ghastly grim and ancient raven wandering from the Nightly shore-
Tell me what thy lordly name is on the Night ' s Plutonian shore! (3) "
                                      Quoth the raven, "Nevermore. "

于是这只黑鸟把我悲伤的幻觉哄骗成微笑,
以它那老成持重一本正经温文尔雅的容颜,
“虽然冠毛被剪除,”我说,“但你肯定不是懦夫,
你这幽灵般可怕的古鸦,漂泊来自夜的彼岸——
请告诉我你尊姓大名,在黑沉沉的冥府阴间!”
乌鸦答曰“永不复还。”

Much I marveled this ungainly fowl to hear discourse so plainly,
Though its answer little meaning-little relevancy hore;
For we cannot help agreeing that no sublunary being (4)
Ever yet was blessed with seeing bird above his chamber door-
Bird or beast upon the sculptured bust above I us chamber door,
                                      With such mime as "Nevermore.

听见如此直率的回答,我惊叹这丑陋的乌鸦,
虽说它的回答不着边际——与提问几乎无关;
因为我们不得不承认,从来没有活着的世人
曾如此有幸地看见一只鸟栖在他房门的上面——
鸟或兽栖在他房间门上方的半身雕像上面,
有这种名字“永不复还。”

But the raven, sitting lonely on the placid bust, spoke only
That one word, as if his soul in that ill~ word he did outpour.
Nothing farther then he uttered-not a feather then he fluttered-
Till I scarcely more than muttered,   "Other friends have flown before-
On the morrow he will leave me, as my hopes have flown before. "
                                      Quoth the raven, "Nevermore. "

但那只独栖于肃穆的半身雕像上的乌鸦只说了
这一句话,仿佛它倾泻灵魂就用那一个字眼。
然后它便一声不吭——也不把它的羽毛拍动——
直到我几乎是喃喃自语“其他朋友早已消散——
明晨它也将离我而去——如同我的希望已消散。”
这时那鸟说“永不复还。”

Wondering at the stillness broken by reply so aptly spoken,
"Doubtless," said I, "what it utters is its only stock and store(5),"
Caught from some unhappy master whom unmerciful Disaster
Followed fast and followed fastel-so, when Hope he would adjure,
Stern Despair returned, instead of the sweet Hope he dared adjure-
                                      That sad answer, "Nevermore!"

惊异于那死寂漠漠被如此恰当的回话打破,
“肯定,”我说,“这句话是它唯一的本钱,
从它不幸的主人那儿学来,一连串无情飞灾
曾接踵而至,直到它主人的歌中有了这字眼——
直到他希望的挽歌中有了这个忧伤的字眼
‘永不复还,永不复还。’”

But the raven still beguiling all my sad soul into smiling,
Straight I wheeled a cushioned seat in front of bird, and bust, and door;
Then upon the velvet sinking, I betook myself to linking
Fancy unto fancy, thinking what this ominous bird of yore-
What this grim, ungainly, ghastly, gaunt, and ominous bird of yore
                                      Meant in croaking "Nevermore. "

但那只乌鸦仍然把我悲伤的幻觉哄骗成微笑,
我即刻拖了张软椅到门旁雕像下那只鸟跟前;
然后坐在天鹅绒椅垫上,我开始冥思苦想,
浮想连着浮想,猜度这不祥的古鸟何出此言——
这只狰狞丑陋可怕不吉不祥的古鸟何出此言,
为何聒噪“永不复还。”

This I sat engaged in guessing, but no syllable expressing
To the fowl whose fiery eyes now burned into my bosom's core;
This and more I sat divining, with my head at ease reclining
On the cushion's velvet lining that the lamplight gloated o'er,
But whose velvet violet lining with the lamplight gloating o'er,
                                      She shall press, ah, nevermore!

我坐着猜想那意思,但没对那鸟说片语只言,
此时,它炯炯发光的眼睛已燃烧进我的心坎;
我依然坐在那儿猜度,把我的心靠得很舒服,
舒舒服服地靠在那被灯光凝视的天鹅绒衬垫,
但被灯光爱慕地凝视着的紫色的天鹅绒衬垫,
她将显出,啊,永不复还!

Then, methought, the air grew denser, perfumed from an unseen censer
Swung by angels whose faint foot-falls tinkled on the tufted floor.
"Wretch," I cried, "thy God hath lent thee-by these angels he hath sent thee
Respite-respite and Nepenthe(6)   from thy memories of Lenore!
Let me quaff this kind Nepenthe and forget this lost Lenore!"
                                      Quoth the raven, "Nevermore. "

接着我想,空气变得稠密,被无形香炉熏香,
提香炉的撒拉弗的脚步声响在有簇饰的地板。
“可怜的人,”我呼道,“是上帝派天使为你送药,
这望忧药能中止你对失去的丽诺尔的思念;
喝吧,喝吧,忘掉对失去的丽诺尔的思念!”
乌鸦说“永不复还。”

"Prophet!" said I, "thing of evil! -prophet still, if bird or devil! -
Whether Tempter sent, or whether tempest tossed thee here ashore,
Desolate, yet all undaunted, on this desert land enchanted-
On this home by Horror haunted-tell me truly, I implore-
Is there-is there balm in Gilead?(7)-tell me-tell me, I implore!"
                                      Quoth the raven, "Nevermore. "

“先知!”我说,“凶兆!——仍是先知,不管是鸟是魔!
是不是魔鬼送你,或是暴风雨抛你来到此岸,
孤独但毫不气馁,在这片妖惑鬼祟的荒原——
在这恐怖萦绕之家——告诉我真话,求你可怜——
基列有香膏吗?——告诉我——告诉我,求你可怜!”
乌鸦说“永不复还。”

"Prophet!" said I, "thing of evil! -prophet still, if bird or devil!
By that Heaven that bends above us-by that God we both adore-
Tell this soul with sorrow laden if, within the distant Aidenn (8),
It shall clasp a sainted maiden whom the angels name Lenore-
Clasp a rare and radiant maiden whom the angels name Lenore.
                                      Quoth the raven, "Nevermore. "

“先知!”我说,“凶兆!——仍是先知,不管是鸟是魔!
凭我们头顶的苍天起誓——凭我们都崇拜的上帝起誓——
告诉这充满悲伤的灵魂,它能否在遥远的仙境
拥抱被天使叫作丽诺尔的少女,她纤尘不染——
拥抱被天使叫作丽诺尔的少女,她美丽娇艳。”
乌鸦说“永不复还。”

"Be that word our sign of parting, bird or fiend!" I shrieked, upstarting-
"Get thee back into the tempest and the Night's plutonian shore!
Leave no black plume as a token of that lie thy soul hath spoken!
Leave my loneliness unbroken! -quit the bust above my door!
Take thy beak from out my heart, and take thy form from off my door! "
                                      Quoth the raven, "Nevermore. "

“让这话做我们的道别之辞,鸟或魔!”我突然叫道——
“回你的暴风雨中去吧,回你黑沉沉的冥府阴间!
别留下黑色羽毛作为你的灵魂谎言的象征!
留给我完整的孤独!——快从我门上的雕像滚蛋!
从我心中带走你的嘴,从我房门带走你的外观!”
乌鸦说“永不复还。”


And the raven, never flitting, still is sitting, still is sitting
On the pallid bust of Pallas just above my chamber door;
And his eyes have all the seeming of a demon that is dreaming,
And the lamp-light o' er him streaming throve his shadow on the floor;
And my soul from out chat shadow that lies floating on the floor
                                      Shall be lifted-nevermore!

那乌鸦并没飞去,它仍然栖息,仍然栖息
在房门上方那苍白的帕拉斯半身雕像上面;
而它的眼光与正在做梦的魔鬼眼光一模一样,
照在它身上的灯光把它的阴影投射在地板;
而我的灵魂,会从那团在地板上漂浮的阴暗
被擢升么——永不复还!


“基列有香膏吗?”语出《旧约·耶利米书》第8章第22节“难道基列没有镇痛香膏吗?难道那里没有治病的医生吗?”——译者注

《乌鸦》是爱伦·坡1844年创作的。《乌鸦》叙述的是一位经受失亲之痛的男子在孤苦无奈,心灰意冷的深夜与一只乌鸦邂逅并叙述的故事。基调凄怆疑惧,源于不可逆转的绝望,随着乌鸦一声声“永不复生”而加深,直至绝望到无以复加的终行。

“永不复生”共重复了11次,它是乌鸦唯一的话语,既是它的名字,也是它对作者每一次询问的回答。听起来既答非所问,又觉得非常应景。它把一幕原本荒诞的对话推向了对生存价值的哲理叙述。人至爱的一切不正像乌鸦聒噪的那样,一旦逝去便永不复生吗?
引用 音色糜烂 2012-3-4 21:27
为了考研而奋斗
引用 姜茶 2012-3-5 15:36
谢谢楼主的分析分享,受教了。

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