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[2012.04.28] 世界上最致命的生物恐怖主义者

2012-4-29 08:04| 发布者: migmig| 查看: 7839| 评论: 41|原作者: 悠悠万事97

摘要: 大自然比任何人渣更喜欢生物武器。人类最好的防卫是对之进行更多的研究,而不是相反
科学自由与安全

世界上最致命的生物恐怖主义者


大自然比任何人渣更喜欢生物武器。人类最好的防卫是对之进行更多的研究,而不是相反

Apr 28th 2012 | from the print edition
Bioterrorist.jpg
有些事情是最高机密。比如,因为公众有兴趣就该公布原子弹的设计图纸,这就没什么道理。然而,具有造成大规模破坏潜力的科学信息或许也能阻止这种破坏,这时如何决定就没那么容易判断。

就拿禽流感来说吧。自2003年以来至少有330人死于该症。这一人数听上去并不多,但该症确诊患者只有570例,死亡率高达60%。死亡人数仅限于此的唯一原因,是因为只有直接与病鸟(通常是鸡)接触的人才会感染病毒、罹患此症。对所有其他人来说很幸运的是,这种病不易在人与人之间传播。

但这也不是不可能的。分别在美国与荷兰的两个科学家团队去年研究了这一课题。他们将禽流感病毒的基因略作调整,产生了一种可通过空气在雪貂之间传播的新品种。而在这一类研究中,雪貂是人类的良好替代品。

这些科学家是出于纯科学目的进行这一研究的。他们联合使用了多种基因突变方式,最后生成了那些令雪貂致死的病毒;但这些方式全都是自然界中已有的。它们很有可能天然产生,造成流行病。这两个科学家团队预期会发生这种基因重组,强调了其风险;这就让疫苗研究专家有了先手之利,可以考虑如何对症下药,预防新的病毒品种。而且,由于他们指出了造成新品种的突变方式,这就会推动病毒监控工作,而此前人们对之时常有些漫不经心。

或者不如说:当他们获准发表研究成果时会有这些好处。但他们未获批准。美国与荷兰政府都觉得发生这种威胁的可能性不大;从他们的观点出发,两国政府看到了另一种威胁。他们担心有些坏人可能会重复这一实验来制造生物武器。因此,去年12月他们禁止这两个团队发表披露具体技术细节的论文。

流感的威胁是实在的。曾在1918-19年间肆虐的所谓西班牙流感传染了5亿人,五分之一的罹患者丧生。后来的流感大流行虽说没有这么严重,但每次都让人类社会元气大伤。而恐怖主义的威胁也是实在的。尽管过去100年并未发生过生物战,但许多国家曾就这一想法进行过试验。某些恐怖主义组织并非在政治上有什么特别的不满,而是笼统地憎恨西方;人们担心他们可能会纯粹出于仇恨而引发病毒传染病,造成对人类无法控制的残害。那么究竟谁正确?是那些想要发表他们的研究成果的科学家,还是那些想要阻止他们的政府?

就这一特例来说,或许那些研究人员是正确的。而且当局似乎也意识到了这一点,这实在是他们的光荣。在世界顶级病毒学家、学术杂志编辑、安全专家、伦理学家和政策制定者参与下,经过几个月的认真审议,美国政府4月20日转变了原来的立场(见另文)。在本期《经济学人》付印时,荷兰政府正在重新考虑他们的立场。

这样做的原因是:作为生物恐怖主义者,人类的水平远逊于自然。虽然美国安全部门通常会过于谨慎,但他们似乎也认同生物恐怖袭击可能性很低这种观点。研制生物武器需要有熟练的科学家,使用最先进的装置。即便如此,能否成功也很难预料,因此是难于控制的。某种致命的微生物可能在被制成武器之前就反噬它们的制造者。具有高超科学能力的奥姆真理教曾在1993年考虑过利用炭疽发动袭击;但他们两年后在东京地铁站发动最猖狂的袭击、造成13人丧生时选择的是神经毒气;基地组织在2001年的911事件中认准的是飞机。

与此相反,自然在这方面极有特长。从黑死病 [注] 到西班牙流感到艾滋病,细菌与病毒以恐怖主义者与独裁者梦寐以求的规模杀人。人们越是堵住科学家的嘴巴或是藏起他们的数据,他们就越是难以找到对付传染病的方法;这也可能会赶走年轻有为的科学家,让他们转而投入不那么困扰人类的平淡领域。

自然诞生的杀手


这就是说,当前自然的威胁大于人为威胁。美国当局敢于承认这一点确实很勇敢。如果真有生物恐怖暴行发生,他们肯定会受到追究。反之,因为“自然的行为” 是“上帝的意志”,所以人们更容易接受;过去人们就是如此。

但这一个事例强调了一个刚开始受人关注的问题。原子弹是物理学之子。神经毒气是化学之子。这是两门古老的、成熟的科学。生物技术是新的科学,人们尚不清楚它的潜力与极限。美国政府这次做出了正确决定。人们希望荷兰政府也会很快仿效美国。但包括政治家和科学家在内的每一个人都理应密切关注一项迅速改变的技术,以及风险平衡的任何变动。

[注] 这里的黑死病指14世纪中期发生在欧洲的鼠疫,估计当时欧洲约三分之一的人口丧生,总数达2500万人。

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引用 Dezazer 2012-4-29 08:37
这是我需要积累的题材之一,收下了 哈哈
晚上来看~
引用 yannanchen 2012-4-29 08:41
本帖最后由 yannanchen 于 2012-4-29 19:21 编辑

SOME things are best kept secret有些事情是最高机密???
有些事情最好保密。 这里的best 是副词, 最有利地, 最适当地。
Some things are best left unsaid. 有些事最好不要说。 (只干不说)
Other things are best left undone. 有些事最好只说不做。
引用 林忆纾 2012-4-29 09:07
1.“人类最好的防卫是对之进行更多的研究 。”就可以了

2. public interest=common good
贴一条ECO的平行文本供汤兄参考
The case (which has not come to court) is the latest to be cited by a coalition demanding changes in English libel law. Others include that of a British cardiologist, Peter Wilmshurst, who criticised the safety of an American-made medical device at an American conference—but is being sued, personally, in England. The law, critics say, unfairly protects reputation at the cost of the public interest. That hurts journalists, and scientists and anti-corruption campaigners. They also worry about “libel tourism”: foreigners fighting cases in English courts that would be unsuccessful elsewhere.


3.They tweaked the bird-flu virus’s genes to produce a version which can travel through the air from ferret to ferret. And ferrets are, in this context, good proxies for people.

这句翻译地有偏差,注意同义词间的转换

-----
实在不好意思汤兄,只能改到这儿(其实也没有什么错误),boss来了。。。


引用 yannanchen 2012-4-29 09:14
本帖最后由 yannanchen 于 2012-4-29 18:22 编辑

The researchers’ motives were pure. The mutations they combined to produce their ferret-killing flu virus are all out there in the wild already. There is every chance those mutations could get together naturally and unleash a pandemic. By anticipating that recombination the two teams highlighted the risk, gave vaccine researchers a head start in thinking about how to counter it and, by fingering the mutations, spurred surveillance efforts, which have often been half-hearted.这些科学家是出于纯科学目的进行这一研究的。他们联合使用了多种基因突变方式,最后生成了那些令雪貂致死的病毒;但这些方式全都是自然界中已有的。它们很有可能天然产生,造成流行病。这两个科学家团队预期会发生这种基因重组,强调了其风险;这就让疫苗研究专家有了先手之利,可以考虑如何对症下药,预防新的病毒品种。而且,由于他们指出了造成新品种的突变方式,这就会推动病毒监控工作,而此前人们对之时常有些漫不经心。

评论: 生物学我是门外汉, 所以不对的地方,请不吝指出。

1.        The mutations they combined to produce their ferret-killing flu virus are all out there in the wild already.

2.        There is every chance those mutations could get together naturally and unleash a pandemic.
(这里的those 特指句1. the mutations out there in the wild already)

3.        By anticipating that recombination
(这里的that 特指句2. those mutations get together naturally and unleash a pandemic)

这里头的 combined, get together, recombination 都应是一个意思。突变(基因)的组合, 重组。

所以1. 他们人为重组的基因突变最后生成令雪貂致死的病毒, 但是这些基因突变全都是自然界中已经有的。
2. 自然界里的这些突变基因完全有可能自行重组, 从而引发一场流行病。

the mutations they combined ......= they combined the mutations already out there in the wild to produce the flu virus that could kill ferrets.

希望这样更清楚些。




引用 yannanchen 2012-4-29 10:00
By anticipating that recombination the two teams highlighted the risk, gave vaccine researchers a head start in thinking about how to counter it and, by fingering the mutations, spurred surveillance efforts, which have often been half-hearted.
Or, rather, they would have done had they been allowed to publish their results. They weren’t. Both the American and the Dutch governments saw not a sensible anticipation of a threat, but a threat in its own right. Their fear was that bad guys somewhere might repeat the experiment and weaponise the result. So in December they banned publication of the papers revealing the technical details of what the teams had done.
或者不如说:当他们获准发表研究成果时会有这些好处。但他们未获批准。
评论: 这两段的连接很重要, 值得进一步分析。
Or, rather, they would have done had they been allowed to publish their results。 They weren’t.
第一,        they (their)指什么? 这容易,上段里的 the two teams
第二,        would have done 里的done 指什么? 上段里的几个主要动词: highlighted the risk, gave a head start, spurred surveillance efforts.
第三,        They weren’t=they were not allowed to publish
上段说了,由于预期了重组的可能性, 他们对世人昭示了这种危险性, 给予研究人员先手之利, 又由于指明了突变的所在,提升了监控的努力。
不过, 慢点, 虽然照理是会发生这种 昭示,给予,提升,但是有一个条件, 那就是得允许他们发表研究结果。  
第二段的翻译可以这样考虑:
或者这样说吧, 这些效果都没有出现, 因为这都需要允许他们公开发表研究结果。 但是, 他们没被允许。
引用 yannanchen 2012-4-29 10:32
to their credit
值得称道,
引用 yannanchen 2012-4-29 10:44
本帖最后由 yannanchen 于 2012-4-29 19:23 编辑

have form

form [fɔːm]
n
1. the shape or configuration of something as distinct from its colour, texture, etc.
2. the particular mode, appearance, etc., in which a thing or person manifests itself water in the form of ice in the form of a bat
3. a type or kind imprisonment is a form of punishment
4.
a.  a printed document, esp one with spaces in which to insert facts or answers an application form
b.  (as modifier) a form letter
5. physical or mental condition, esp good condition, with reference to ability to perform off form
6. (Individual Sports, other than specified) the previous record of a horse, athlete, etc., esp with regard to fitness

7. Brit slang a criminal record 有前科。

8. (Fine Arts & Visual Arts / Art Terms) style, arrangement, or design in the arts, as opposed to content
9. (Fine Arts & Visual Arts / Art Terms) a fixed mode of artistic expression or representation in literary, musical, or other artistic works sonata form sonnet form
10. a mould, frame, etc., that gives shape to something
11. organized structure or order, as in an artistic work
12. (Social Science / Education) Education chiefly Brit a group of children who are taught together; class
13. manner, method, or style of doing something, esp with regard to recognized standards
14. behaviour or procedure, esp as governed by custom or etiquette good form
15. formality or ceremony
16. a prescribed set or order of words, terms, etc., as in a religious ceremony or legal document
17. (Philosophy) Philosophy
a.  the structure of anything as opposed to its constitution or content
b.  essence as opposed to matter
c.  (often capital) (in the philosophy of Plato) the ideal universal that exists independently of the particulars which fall under it See also Form
d.  (in the philosophy of Aristotle) the constitution of matter to form a substance; by virtue of this its nature can be understood
18. (Philosophy / Logic) See logical form
19. Brit a bench, esp one that is long, low, and backless
20. (Life Sciences & Allied Applications / Zoology) the nest or hollow in which a hare lives
21. (Life Sciences & Allied Applications / Biology) a group of organisms within a species that differ from similar groups by trivial differences, as of colour
22. (Linguistics) Linguistics
a.  the phonological or orthographic shape or appearance of a linguistic element, such as a word
b.  a linguistic element considered from the point of view of its shape or sound rather than, for example, its meaning
23. (Chemistry) Crystallog See crystal form
24. (Life Sciences & Allied Applications / Biology) Taxonomy a group distinguished from other groups by a single characteristic: ranked below a variety
引用 yannanchen 2012-4-29 10:47
By contrast, “acts of nature” are more easily shrugged off as, as it were, acts of God.反之,因为“自然的行为” 是“上帝的意志”,所以人们更容易接受;过去人们就是如此。

评论: as it were, 不是   过去人们就是如此
这是   似乎 的意思
如果像你这样解释, 至少要写成 as they were 因为 acts of nature =they, 不能是 it
引用 yannanchen 2012-4-29 10:48
本帖最后由 yannanchen 于 2012-4-29 18:18 编辑

as it were
In a manner of speaking; as if such were so.

as it were 看似过去式, 实际上可以用在现在时, 只有这种时间的穿越, 才是虚拟的表征。
引用 悠悠万事97 2012-4-29 13:50
yannanchen 发表于 2012-4-29 08:41
SOME things are best kept secret有些事情是最高机密???
有些事情最好保密。 这里的best 是副词, 最有 ...

我开始确实是这样译的,可能与你说的一字不差。后来感觉best kept secret应该是一个名词词组,所以改成了现在这样。但仔细读读前后文,似乎又应该像原来那样:原子弹不可说,病毒可说。有点困惑。陈版您这种译法是根据前后文来的吗?
引用 悠悠万事97 2012-4-29 14:03
林忆纾 发表于 2012-4-29 09:07
1.“人类最好的防卫是对之进行更多的研究 。”就可以了

2. public interest=common good

1.“人类最好的防卫是对之进行更多的研究 。”就可以了
总觉得有点不大保险。如果说“要进行防卫,人类还是要更多而不是更少地研究自然”如何?

2. public interest=common good
贴一条ECO的平行文本供汤兄参考
The case (which has not come to court) is the latest to be cited by a coalition demanding changes in English libel law. Others include that of a British cardiologist, Peter Wilmshurst, who criticised the safety of an American-made medical device at an American conference—but is being sued, personally, in England. The law, critics say, unfairly protects reputation at the cost of the public interest. That hurts journalists, and scientists and anti-corruption campaigners. They also worry about “libel tourism”: foreigners fighting cases in English courts that would be unsuccessful elsewhere.
仔细读了几遍,联系上下文,感觉这里还是“公众的兴趣”而不是“公众的利益”。因为我感觉“发表有关原子弹的资料”肯定会让一部分公众感到兴趣,但不符合除恐怖主义者外的全人类的利益。

3.They tweaked the bird-flu virus’s genes to produce a version which can travel through the air from ferret to ferret. And ferrets are, in this context, good proxies for people.
这句翻译地有偏差,注意同义词间的转换
这里我没有完全明白林兄的意思,能否明示?
引用 echo.chan 2012-4-29 15:13
人类最好的防卫是对之进行更多的研究,而不是相反----更少,或者直接去掉

这时如何决定就没那么容易判断。
判断一个决定的对与错,而不是直接去判断决定。试译:这时就很难抉择。

They tweaked the bird-flu virus’s genes to produce a version
调整基因---我不懂生物,但是猜测这里是基因变异的意思,比如杂交水稻,就是这样的原理

分别在---放在句首不合中文习惯美国与荷兰的两个科学家团队

雪貂是人类的良好替代品---有歧义:1.雪貂是替代人类本身的试验品;2.人类把雪貂当成其他实验动物的替代品

Both the American and the Dutch governments saw not a sensible anticipation of a threat, but a threat in its own right.
从他们的观点出发,两国政府看到了另一种威胁。
in its own right:by reason of one's own ability or ownership etc.
这个it你觉得是指美国和荷兰政府?我认为指实验本身。政府看不出自然界自行进行基因重组,引发流行病,反而觉得正在进行的实验是一个威胁。为什么呢?答案在后一句。

The researchers’ motives were pure.
这些科学家是出于纯科学目的进行这一研究的
科学家的motive是pure,但非翻译为“纯科学目的",纯科学目的,给人的感觉是,只为成功,不是为人类福祉做贡献

人们担心他们可能会纯粹出于仇恨而引发病毒传染病----这句中文有语病

人类的水平远逊于---之间的差别可以翻译得更大---不能相提并论自然

基地组织在2001年的911事件中认准的是飞机

you also probably drive bright young researchers away towards less fraught, blander areas.
这也可能会赶走年轻有为的科学家,让他们转而投入不那么困扰人类的平淡领域。
1.you翻译为普通意义的”人们“,恰当吗?
2.fraught,受到困扰的是科学家还是人类?


他们肯定会受到追究-真的会有人去追究吗?还是“难辞其咎”?

引用 nayilus 2012-4-29 16:41
Even then, they are unpredictable—and therefore difficult to control.
即便如此,能否成功也很难预料,因此是难于控制的。
这里的they应该是生物武器
即便如此,生物武器的特性往往难以预测,因此狠难加以控制。



引用 yannanchen 2012-4-29 18:30
best
- definition   
1.       
in the way that is most satisfactory, suitable, pleasant, effective, successful etc
You need to find out which program works best on your computer.
He is the kind of musician who always performs best in front of a live audience.
The play can be best described as ‘a serious comedy’.
do something as best you can (=do something as well as you are able):
I’ll try to deal with all these problems as best I can.
suit someone best (=be most suitable for someone):
Which colour do you think suits me best?
Thesaurus entry for this meaning of best
2.        2
used for saying that someone or something is liked or known more than any other
like someone/something best:
What kind of music do you like best?
best known/loved:
The Mona Lisa is probably the world’s best-known painting.
one of Gershwin’s best loved melodies
Thesaurus entry for this meaning of best
1.        a.
used for saying that someone or something is famous, especially in one particular way or for one particular reason
best known/remembered for something:
James Dean is best remembered for his star performance in Rebel without a Cause.
The Bordeaux region is best known for its fine wines.
best known as:
Conan Doyle is probably best known as the creator of Sherlock Holmes.
Thesaurus entry for this meaning of best
PHRASE
•        had best do something
used for saying that someone should do something
You’d best come with me if you don’t know the way.
We’d best not disturb him when he’s working.

引用 yannanchen 2012-4-29 18:31
本帖最后由 yannanchen 于 2012-4-29 19:25 编辑

best
adverb /best/ adv Definition
• in the most suitable, pleasing or satisfactory way, or to the greatest degree
Which evening would suit you best for the party?
The Grand Canyon is best seen at sunset when it seems to change colour.
He couldn't decide which one he liked best (= preferred).
• to the greatest degree when used as the superlative of adjectives beginning with 'good' or 'well'
They were the best-dressed couple at the party.
He was voted the best-looking (= most attractive) actor in Hollywood.
as best you can mainly UK as well as you can
It is a difficult passage, but just translate it as best you can.
引用 WZRzai2011 2012-4-29 19:51
学习
引用 翻译无国界 2012-4-29 20:03
1.The matter is less clear-cut, however, when scientific information that has the potential to wreak havoc might also stop that havoc happening.
然而,具有造成大规模破坏潜力的科学信息或许也能阻止这种破坏,这时如何决定就没那么容易判断。
此句中“wreck”,意思当为“招致,引起”,否则难以理解
试译为:然而,有的科学知识也许既可以终止正在发生的灾难,也可能引起灾难。这时是否公布该知识就没那么容易决断了。
引用 翻译无国界 2012-4-29 20:07
2.Take bird flu. It has killed more than 330 people since 2003. That may not sound many, but it amounts to 60% of the 570 known cases of the disease.
就拿禽流感来说吧。自2003年以来至少有330人死于该。这一人数听上去并不多,但该症只有570例确诊患者,这就让死亡率高达60%。
病就是病,病毒就是病毒。楼主说“症”,呵呵,比较少见,不大准确哦。
引用 翻译无国界 2012-4-29 20:11
3.The best defence is more research, not less
要进行防卫,人类最好更多而不是更少地研究自然
试译为:更好的防御方法是进行更多的科研,而不是减少。
“研究自然”,是不是有些别扭啊?

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