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[2012.05.26] 嬉戏三叠纪

2012-5-28 08:22| 发布者: migmig| 查看: 7931| 评论: 7|原作者: 悠悠万事97

摘要: 人们能够 通过研究骨骼化石得到极不寻常的信息
【导读】鱼龙是从大陆迁往海洋的爬行动物,它们跟鲸类一样,有可能因上浮过快而罹患减压病。但奇怪的是,较早的三叠纪鱼龙没有减压病病例,而随后的侏罗纪与白垩纪鱼龙却有这种病症。是它们的进化能力突然失去了吗?否。欲知详情,请读:《嬉戏三叠纪》。

鱼龙与减压病


嬉戏三叠纪

人们能够 通过研究骨骼化石得到极不寻常的信息

May 26th 2012 | from the print edition
fossilBones.jpg       

弯曲吧,成型吧……

潜水员如果浮出水面过快就可能会得减压病。就跟打开瓶塞后香槟酒瓶中的气体突然冲出来一样,由于压强降低,溶解在血液中的氮气会突然游离而出,形成气泡;如果气泡积聚在关节中就会造成剧痛和身体弯曲畸变——英文病名“弯曲症”因而得名。但如果气泡在肺部或大脑中形成则可能致死。

其他呼吸空气的物种——例如鲸——上浮过快时也会患这种减压病。很久以前的鱼龙也是如此。人们可以从它们的骨骼看出这些与恐龙同存于中生代的海洋爬行动物患有该病。但因为并非所有鱼龙都有畸变,所以人们也看到了一种新奇的进化现象。

骨头是活着的组织,在骨头内形成的氮气气泡会切断血液供应。这就会杀死骨头内的细胞,削弱骨骼强度,有时甚至可令其破碎。自发凹陷的骨骼的化石似乎让人们看到了罹患减压病动物的死亡真相。

为搞清当年这种疾病的流行程度,堪萨斯大学(University of Kansas)的布鲁斯•罗斯采尔德(Bruce Rothschild)开始研究鱼龙骨骼;当时他完全知道上述情况。和鲸一样,鱼龙也是从陆地迁往海洋的。罗斯采尔德特别希望弄明白,它们在遨游大洋的1亿5千万年中是如何适应这一减压问题的。为了这个目的,他与他的同事们走遍了世界各地的自然历史博物馆,总共考察了三叠纪(两亿五千万到两亿年前)的116只鱼龙,还有后来的侏罗纪和白垩纪(分别为2亿至1亿4千500万年前和1亿4千500万至6500万年前)的190只鱼龙。

他在研究开始时假定,化石越年轻,有减压病症状的鱼龙就会越少,因为它们逐步进化,形成了对付减压病的机能。许多鲸就是这样,它们能够在血液中储存大量氧气。然而情况完全相反,这让他非常吃惊。侏罗纪和白垩纪鱼龙生前患有减压病的比例超过15%,但完全没有三叠纪鱼龙罹患该症的证据。
   
如果鱼龙确曾进化得到了一种抗减压病的机能,那么这种进化一定发展得很快;但最为奇特的是,它们后来却失去了这一机能。不过罗斯丘尔德认为,实际情况并非如此。他在《自然科学》期刊Naturwissenschaften)上撰文解释了自己的观点,认为这一变化是其他物种的进化造成的。

鲸类时常因逃避大型鲨鱼等捕食者的追捕急速上浮而患减压病。存在大量大型鲨鱼和庞大的海生鳄鱼是侏罗纪大洋的一个特点。这些大型生物都有兴趣捕食鱼龙。相反三叠纪大洋中却不存在鲨鱼与鳄鱼,因而是鱼龙的温馨家园。因此它们位于三叠纪大洋食物链的顶端。而在侏罗纪与白垩纪中它们既是捕食者也是被捕食者,所以时常需要急速逃命。
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引用 yannanchen 2012-5-28 08:26
crippleing
正字法应要求 crippling
引用 插一嘴 2012-5-28 09:05
很有趣的文章,翻译得很棒

有几个稍微含糊的地方和楼主商榷一下。


IF A diver surfaces too quickly, he may suffer the bends. Nitrogen dissolved in his blood is suddenly liberated by the reduction of pressure, just as the gas in a bottle of champagne is released when the cork is popped. The consequence, if the bubbles accumulate in a joint, is crippleing pain and a contorted posture—hence the name. If the bubbles form in his lungs or his brain, though, the consequence can be death.
潜水员如果浮出水面过快就可能会得减压病。就跟打开瓶塞后香槟酒瓶中的气体突然冲出来一样,由于压强降低,溶解在血液中的氮气会突然游离而出,形成气泡;如果气泡积聚在关节中就会造成剧痛和身体弯曲畸变——英文病名“弯曲症”因而得名。但如果气泡在肺部或大脑中形成则可能致死。


a contorted posture:感觉这里是因为剧痛而扭曲着身体,这个该不算是畸变。

Bone is a living tissue, and if bubbles of nitrogen form inside it they can cut off its blood supply. This kills the cells in the bone, and consequently weakens it, sometimes to the point of collapse. Fossil bones that have caved in on themselves are thus a dead giveaway, as it were, of an animal that once had the bends.
骨头是活着的组织,在骨头内形成的氮气气泡会切断血液供应。这就会杀死骨头内的细胞,削弱骨骼强度,有时甚至可令其破碎。自发凹陷的骨骼的化石似乎让人们看到了罹患减压病动物的死亡真相。


Fossil bones that have caved in on themselves are thus a dead giveaway, as it were, of an animal that once had the bends. 这句话翻译得不够精确

a dead giveaway:make it very easy to guess something

as it were:in fact, if not in deed

-- 自发凹陷的骨骼的化石不难让我们看出它的主人生前极可能患有减压病。


When he started, he assumed that signs of the bends would be rarer in younger fossils, reflecting their gradual evolution of measures to deal with decompression, such as the ability found in many whales to store lots of oxygen in their blood. Instead, he was astonished to discover the reverse. More than 15% of Jurassic and Cretaceous ichthyosaurs had suffered the bends before they died, but not a single Triassic specimen showed evidence of that sort of injury.
他在研究开始时假定,化石越年轻,有减压病症状的鱼龙就会越少,因为它们逐步进化,形成了对付减压病的机能。许多鲸就是这样,它们能够在血液中储存大量氧气。然而情况完全相反,这让他非常吃惊。侏罗纪和白垩纪鱼龙生前患有减压病的比例超过15%,但完全没有三叠纪鱼龙罹患该症的证据。


such as the ability found in many whales to store lots of oxygen in their blood:这里翻译得稍有问题,原文是说许多鲸具有的在血液中储存大量氧气的能力也是逐步进化的结果。
引用 yannanchen 2012-5-28 09:33
giveaway - definition
noun  /ˈɡɪvəˌweɪ/
singular giveaway
plural giveaways

Related dictionary definitions
giveaway adjective
1[singular] a movement, action, or expression on someone’s face that shows the truth about something or that lets you realize something that should be a secret
a dead (=obvious) giveaway: I knew she’d passed. Her face was a dead giveaway.

引用 悠悠万事97 2012-5-28 13:43
插一嘴 发表于 2012-5-28 09:05
很有趣的文章,翻译得很棒

有几个稍微含糊的地方和楼主商榷一下。

有几个稍微含糊的地方和楼主商榷一下。

IF A diver surfaces too quickly, he may suffer the bends. Nitrogen dissolved in his blood is suddenly liberated by the reduction of pressure, just as the gas in a bottle of champagne is released when the cork is popped. The consequence, if the bubbles accumulate in a joint, is crippleing pain and a contorted posture—hence the name. If the bubbles form in his lungs or his brain, though, the consequence can be death.
潜水员如果浮出水面过快就可能会得减压病。就跟打开瓶塞后香槟酒瓶中的气体突然冲出来一样,由于压强降低,溶解在血液中的氮气会突然游离而出,形成气泡;如果气泡积聚在关节中就会造成剧痛和身体弯曲畸变——英文病名“弯曲症”因而得名。但如果气泡在肺部或大脑中形成则可能致死。


a contorted posture:感觉这里是因为剧痛而扭曲着身体,这个该不算是畸变。

这里似乎尚有讨论的余地。为什么观察骨骼化石能让人知道动物生前是否患有减压病呢?我觉得是因为骨骼有了畸变。后面也提到got the bends can be seen from their bones.


Bone is a living tissue, and if bubbles of nitrogen form inside it they can cut off its blood supply. This kills the cells in the bone, and consequently weakens it, sometimes to the point of collapse. Fossil bones that have caved in on themselves are thus a dead giveaway, as it were, of an animal that once had the bends.
骨头是活着的组织,在骨头内形成的氮气气泡会切断血液供应。这就会杀死骨头内的细胞,削弱骨骼强度,有时甚至可令其破碎。自发凹陷的骨骼的化石似乎让人们看到了罹患减压病动物的死亡真相。


Fossil bones that have caved in on themselves are thus a dead giveaway, as it were, of an animal that once had the bends. 这句话翻译得不够精确

a dead giveaway:make it very easy to guess something

的评。

as it were:in fact, if not in deed
as it were
In a manner of speaking; as if such were so.
as it were
可以说是,似乎就是;好像
根据以上义项,译为“似乎”应该问题不大。


-- 自发凹陷的骨骼的化石不难让我们看出它的主人生前极可能患有减压病。

When he started, he assumed that signs of the bends would be rarer in younger fossils, reflecting their gradual evolution of measures to deal with decompression, such as the ability found in many whales to store lots of oxygen in their blood. Instead, he was astonished to discover the reverse. More than 15% of Jurassic and Cretaceous ichthyosaurs had suffered the bends before they died, but not a single Triassic specimen showed evidence of that sort of injury.
他在研究开始时假定,化石越年轻,有减压病症状的鱼龙就会越少,因为它们逐步进化,形成了对付减压病的机能。许多鲸就是这样,它们能够在血液中储存大量氧气。然而情况完全相反,这让他非常吃惊。侏罗纪和白垩纪鱼龙生前患有减压病的比例超过15%,但完全没有三叠纪鱼龙罹患该症的证据。


such as the ability found in many whales to store lots of oxygen in their blood:这里翻译得稍有问题,原文是说许多鲸具有的在血液中储存大量氧气的能力也是逐步进化的结果。
感觉原译文的意思还是正确的,因为“许多鲸就是这样,”中的“这样”,指的就是“逐步进化,形成了对付减压病的机能”。但添加几个字,让意义更为清楚则更好。

谢谢大嘴编导莅临。

引用 插一嘴 2012-5-28 14:08
悠悠万事97 发表于 2012-5-28 13:43
有几个稍微含糊的地方和楼主商榷一下。

IF A diver surfaces too quickly, he may suffer the bends. Ni ...

多谢楼主及时的反馈!

IF A diver surfaces too quickly, he may suffer the bends. Nitrogen dissolved in his blood is suddenly liberated by the reduction of pressure, just as the gas in a bottle of champagne is released when the cork is popped. The consequence, if the bubbles accumulate in a joint, is crippleing pain and a contorted posture—hence the name. If the bubbles form in his lungs or his brain, though, the consequence can be death.
潜水员如果浮出水面过快就可能会得减压病。就跟打开瓶塞后香槟酒瓶中的气体突然冲出来一样,由于压强降低,溶解在血液中的氮气会突然游离而出,形成气泡;如果气泡积聚在关节中就会造成剧痛和身体弯曲畸变——英文病名“弯曲症”因而得名。但如果气泡在肺部或大脑中形成则可能致死。


a contorted posture:感觉这里是因为剧痛而扭曲着身体,这个该不算是畸变。

这里似乎尚有讨论的余地。为什么观察骨骼化石能让人知道动物生前是否患有减压病呢?我觉得是因为骨骼有了畸变。后面也提到got the bends can be seen from their bones.

这个a contorted posture应该是指身体的扭曲,从外观上一眼就看得出来,此病因此得名。请看下面的例句

many of these “twisted” people are sitting in a contorted posture like sitting on your foot/feet with knees to the side
Bone is a living tissue, and if bubbles of nitrogen form inside it they can cut off its blood supply. This kills the cells in the bone, and consequently weakens it, sometimes to the point of collapse. Fossil bones that have caved in on themselves are thus a dead giveaway, as it were, of an animal that once had the bends.
骨头是活着的组织,在骨头内形成的氮气气泡会切断血液供应。这就会杀死骨头内的细胞,削弱骨骼强度,有时甚至可令其破碎。自发凹陷的骨骼的化石似乎让人们看到了罹患减压病动物的死亡真相。


Fossil bones that have caved in on themselves are thus a dead giveaway, as it were, of an animal that once had the bends. 这句话翻译得不够精确

a dead giveaway:make it very easy to guess something

的评。

as it were:in fact, if not in deed
as it were
In a manner of speaking; as if such were so.
as it were
可以说是,似乎就是;好像
根据以上义项,译为“似乎”应该问题不大。

-- 自发凹陷的骨骼的化石不难让我们看出它的主人生前极可能患有减压病。

我所质疑的不是“似乎”,而是整句的翻译(当然,“似乎”也似乎不太精确 ,这里比“似乎”的把握更大)。凹陷的骨头仅能够说明主人生前患有减压病,这个可不一定是死亡的原因哦!
引用 contrary 2012-5-29 11:52
If the bubbles form in his lungs or his brain, though, the consequence can be death.
但如果气泡在肺部或大脑中形成则可能致死。
似乎无需“但”

Fossil bones that have caved in on themselves are thus a dead giveaway, as it were, of an animal that once had the bends.
自发凹陷的骨骼的化石似乎说明该动物生前极有可能患有减压病。
dead giveaway 是彻底暴露/泄露,似乎不用极有可能?

如何适应这一减压问题的
适应问题,似乎不搭

为了这个目的,他与他的同事们走遍了世界各地的自然历史博物馆
为此,他与同事们走遍了世界各地的自然历史博物馆

he assumed that signs of the bends would be rarer in younger fossils, reflecting their gradual evolution of measures to deal with decompression,
化石越年轻,有减压病症状的鱼龙就会越少,因为它们逐步进化,形成了对付减压病的机能。
前面化石后面鱼龙,读起来有点游离;reflecting 是反应,跟因为有些不同吧
较年轻的鱼龙化石中减压病症状较少

both of which were partial to ichthyosaur lunches.  这些大型生物都有兴趣捕食鱼龙。
有兴趣,有点怪
这些大型生物都偏爱捕食鱼龙。
引用 悠悠万事97 2012-5-29 18:18
contrary 发表于 2012-5-29 11:52
If the bubbles form in his lungs or his brain, though, the consequence can be death.
但如果气泡在肺 ...

If the bubbles form in his lungs or his brain, though, the consequence can be death.
但如果气泡在肺部或大脑中形成则可能致死。
似乎无需“但”
感觉前一个后果没有后一个严重

Fossil bones that have caved in on themselves are thus a dead giveaway, as it were, of an animal that once had the bends.
自发凹陷的骨骼的化石似乎说明该动物生前极有可能患有减压病。
dead giveaway 是彻底暴露/泄露,似乎不用极有可能?
酌改

如何适应这一减压问题的
适应问题,似乎不搭
为应对?

为了这个目的,他与他的同事们走遍了世界各地的自然历史博物馆
为此,他与同事们走遍了世界各地的自然历史博物馆
Good

he assumed that signs of the bends would be rarer in younger fossils, reflecting their gradual evolution of measures to deal with decompression,
化石越年轻,有减压病症状的鱼龙就会越少,因为它们逐步进化,形成了对付减压病的机能。
前面化石后面鱼龙,读起来有点游离;reflecting 是反应,跟因为有些不同吧
较年轻的鱼龙化石中减压病症状较少
在较为近代的鱼龙化石中较少出现减压病症状

both of which were partial to ichthyosaur lunches.  这些大型生物都有兴趣捕食鱼龙。
有兴趣,有点怪
这些大型生物都偏爱捕食鱼龙。
Good

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