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2003 阿兰-凯

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发表于 2022-4-17 22:49:40 | 显示全部楼层 |阅读模式

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Alan Kay

PHOTOGRAPHS
BIRTH:
17 May 1940 in Springfield, Massachusetts

EDUCATION:
University of Colorado at Boulder (mathematics and molecular biology); University of Utah MS (computer science), Ph.D. (computer science), 1969.

EXPERIENCE:
Xerox PARC; Stanford University; Atari; Apple Inc. (Advanced Technology Group); Walt Disney Imagineering; UCLA; Kyoto University; MIT; Viewpoints Research Institute; Hewlett-Packard.

HONORS AND AWARDS:
Berlin University of the Arts Award for Interdisciplinary Art and Science (2001); J-D Warnier Prix d'Informatique (2001); NEC Computer & Communications Prize (2001); Telluride Tech Festival Award of Technology (2002); ACM Turing Award (2003); Kyoto Prize (2004); Charles Stark Draper Prize (2004); UPE Abacus Award (2012); ACM Systems Software Award; NEC Computers & Communication Foundation Prize; Funai Foundation Prize; Lewis Branscomb Technology Award; ACM SIGCSE Award for Outstanding Contributions to Computer Science Education. Honorary Doctorates: Kungliga Tekniska Högskolan (Royal Institute of Technology) in Stockholm (2002); Georgia Institute of Technology (2005); Columbia College Chicago (2005); Laurea Honoris Causa in Informatica, Università di Pisa (2007); University of Waterloo (2008); Universidad de Murcia (2010); Honorary Professor, Berlin University of the Arts.
Elected Fellow of: American Academy of Arts and Sciences; National Academy of Engineering; Royal Society of Arts; Computer History Museum (1999); Association for Computing Machinery (2008); Hasso-Plattner-Institute (2011).




ALAN KAY DL Author Profile link
United States – 2003
CITATION
For pioneering many of the ideas at the root of contemporary object-oriented programming languages, leading the team that developed Smalltalk, and for fundamental contributions to personal computing.

SHORT ANNOTATED
BIBLIOGRAPHY
ACM TURING AWARD
LECTURE VIDEO
RESEARCH
SUBJECTS
ADDITIONAL
MATERIALS
Alan Curtis Kay was born in Springfield, Massachusetts on May 17, 1940. His father designed arm and leg prostheses, and his mother, a musician, taught Alan how to play. Kay grew up in an environment of art, literature, and science. He could read by the age of three and had read about 150 books before he started school. His family later moved to New York City where he attended Brooklyn Technical High School.

He started college, but left before graduation to join the air force. There he discovered computers and passed an aptitude test to become an IBM 1401 programmer. He gained experience working with a number of different machines, including the Burroughs B500. From this air force experience, Kay learned that a program can be designed with procedures that don’t know how the data are represented. This idea supported later development of object-oriented programming languages.

After the air force, Kay went back to the University of Colorado. In 1966, he earned an undergraduate degree in mathematics and molecular biology from the University of Colorado. He also worked as a professional jazz guitarist. He then went to the University of Utah where he was awarded MS in Electrical Engineering and, in 1969, a Ph.D. in Computer Science. Much computer science research there was financed by the Department of Defense’s Advanced Research Projects Agency (ARPA), and Kay was one of the many graduate students who attended ARPA-sponsored conferences and contributed to ARPA research and projects such as time-sharing and the ARPAnet, the forerunner of the Internet.

At the University of Utah, graduate students were encouraged to work on practical computing projects. Kay teamed up with Edward Cheadle, who was working on the design of a small computer for engineers. Together they designed “FLEX” to have sharp graphics and windowing features, and called it a “personal computer.”

While working on FLEX, Kay witnessed Douglas Engelbart’s demonstration of interactive computing designed to support collaborative work groups. Engelbart’s vision influenced Kay to adopt graphical interfaces, hypertext, and the mouse. Other influences were JOSS, a system that supported 12 personal workstations; GRAIL, a project designed to support human-computer communication through modeless computing; Understanding Media, a book written by Marshall McLuhan that describes the internalization of media; Logo, a project designed to help children learn through computers; and flat panel screen displays.

After considering these technologies and ideas, Kay made a cardboard mock-up of a tablet-style personal computer with a flat-panel display screen and a stylus. The technology of the time could not capture Kay’s vision for personal computing, but he knew from Moore’s law that eventually it would. Kay continued working on the FLEX project and finished his doctoral work in 1969. His thesis was called the “Reactive Engine.”

After graduating from Utah, Kay became a researcher at the Stanford Artificial Intelligence Laboratory and developed programming languages. He began to think of a future with book-sized computers. Influenced by the Logo project, he particularly wanted to see how children would use them, and made sketches of “KiddieKomputers”. These ideas were later integrated into the design of the Alto computer.

In 1971 Kay joined the Xerox Palo Alto Research Center (PARC). PARC had been started by the Xerox Corporation in 1970 to do long-term research for “the office of the future.” Kay was hired to run The Learning Research Group, and he established the following goals:

Create examples of how small computers could be used in different subject areas;
Examine how small computers could help to expand the user’s visual and auditory skills;
Let children spend time learning about computers and experiment with personal ways to understand computer processes;
Report on children’s unexpected uses of the computer and its software.
Kay was a visionary force at Xerox PARC in the development of tools that transformed computers into a new major communication medium. His credo was, “the best way to predict the future is to invent it.” One of his visionary concepts was the Dynabook, a powerful and portable electronic device the size of a three-ring notebook with a touch-sensitive liquid crystal screen and a keyboard for entering information. Kay is recognized for inventing ideas that became the future. Laptops, notebook computers, and tablets have roots in the early concepts of the Dynabook.

Kay also realized that computers could become a “metamedium”—that it could incorporate all other media. As a new medium, computers could have the same impact as the Gutenberg printing press. McLuhan’s ideas about the cultural impact of the printing press influenced Kay’s choice of the name “Dynabook,” because computers produce dynamic representations of information rather than static book pages.

People needed a method for interacting with the new computer medium. To help with this, Kay and the members of his lab created graphical interfaces and the Smalltalk programming language.

Kay’s philosophy for designing interfaces was based on the learning research of Jerome Bruner, who was influenced by Jean Piaget. Continuing the research, Bruner contended that the mind has multiple intelligences. Using learning theory in interface design helped Kay’s develop computer technology that children could use.

Bruner argued for the existence of different learning mentalities, which suggested to Kay a model for interface design called ‘Doing With Images makes Symbols.” The “doing” was interacting with a mouse, the “images” were icons on the computer screen, and the “symbols” were the SmallTalk programming language.

SmallTalk was originally designed as a graphical programming language. However, it soon became a complete integrated programming environment with a debugger, object-oriented virtual memory, an editor, screen management, and user interface. SmallTalk was the first dynamic object-oriented programming language. It ran on the Alto computer, envisioned by Butler Lampson and designed by Charles P. Thacker  (both Turing Award recipients). The Alto was a step in the direction of small powerful personal computers, and it was considered an interim Dynabook.

Kay left Xerox PARC in the early 1980s to move to Los Angeles. In 1983, Kay worked for Atari for a year before joining Apple Computer. While at Apple, his research team developed Squeak, an open-source SmallTalk language. In 1997 Kay moved his team to Disney’s Imagineering division to continue his work on Squeak. Five years later, he established Viewpoints Research Institute, a nonprofit organization dedicated to supporting educational media for children.

Kay also held the position of Senior Fellow at Hewlett-Packard until 2005. He has taught classes at New York University’s Interactive Telecommunications program, the University of California, Los Angeles, the Kyoto University and the Massachusetts Institute of Technology.

Alan Kay is considered by some as the “father of personal computers” because he envisioned a small computing system in the 1970’s, long before notebook computers were available. The One Laptop per Child program and the Children’s Machine have adopted his concepts about children and learning. His most important contribution to computer science is his commitment to turning the computer into a dynamic personal medium that supports creative thought. He continues to explore ways in which computers can be accessible to children.

Author: Susan B. Barnes





阿兰-凯

照片
出生地:美国
1940年5月17日,马萨诸塞州斯普林菲尔德市

学历:科罗拉多大学博尔德分校(数学和分子生物学);犹他大学硕士(数学)。
科罗拉多大学博尔德分校(数学和分子生物学);犹他大学硕士(计算机科学),博士(计算机科学),1969。

工作经验。
施乐PARC;斯坦福大学;雅达利公司;苹果公司(高级技术组);沃尔特公司(高级技术组)。(Advanced Technology Group); Walt Disney Imagineering; UCLA; Kyoto University; MIT; Viewpoints Research Institute; Hewlett-Packard。

荣誉和奖项。
柏林艺术大学跨学科艺术与科学奖(2001年);J-D Warnier信息学奖(2001年);NEC计算机与通信奖(2001年);特柳赖德科技节技术奖(2002年);ACM图灵奖(2003年);京都奖(2004年);Charles Stark Draper奖(2004年);UPE算盘奖(2012年);ACM系统软件奖;NEC计算机与通信基金会奖;船井基金会奖;Lewis Branscomb技术奖;ACM SIGCSE对计算机科学教育做出杰出贡献奖。荣誉博士。斯德哥尔摩Kungliga Tekniska Högskolan(皇家理工学院)(2002年);乔治亚理工学院(2005年);芝加哥哥伦比亚学院(2005年);比萨大学信息学荣誉学位(2007年);滑铁卢大学(2008年);穆尔西亚大学(2010年);柏林艺术大学荣誉教授。
被选为研究员。美国艺术与科学学院;美国国家工程院;英国皇家艺术学会;计算机历史博物馆(1999年);计算机协会(2008年);哈索-普拉特纳研究所(2011年)。




ALAN KAY DL作者简介链接
美国 - 2003
荣誉证书
开创了当代面向对象编程语言的许多理念,领导了开发Smalltalk的团队,并对个人计算做出了基本贡献。

短篇注释
书目
亚马逊图灵奖
讲座视频
研究
主题
额外的
材料
艾伦-柯蒂斯-凯于1940年5月17日出生在马萨诸塞州的斯普林菲尔德。他的父亲设计了手臂和腿部的假肢,他的母亲是一位音乐家,教艾伦如何演奏。凯在艺术、文学和科学的环境中长大。他在三岁时就能阅读,在上学前已经读了大约150本书。他的家人后来搬到了纽约市,在那里他上了布鲁克林技术高中。

他开始上大学,但在毕业前离开,加入空军。在那里他发现了计算机,并通过了能力测试,成为一名IBM 1401程序员。他获得了使用许多不同机器的经验,包括Burroughs B500。从这次空军的经验中,凯了解到一个程序可以用不知道数据如何表示的程序来设计。这个想法支持了后来面向对象编程语言的发展。

空军结束后,凯回到了科罗拉多大学。1966年,他在科罗拉多大学获得了数学和分子生物学的本科学位。他还做过专业的爵士乐吉他手。然后他去了犹他大学,获得了电子工程硕士学位,并于1969年获得了计算机科学博士学位。那里的许多计算机科学研究是由美国国防部高级研究计划局(ARPA)资助的,凯是许多参加ARPA赞助的会议的研究生之一,并为ARPA的研究和项目做出了贡献,如时间共享和ARPA网络,即互联网的前身。

在犹他大学,研究生们被鼓励从事实际的计算项目。Kay与Edward Cheadle合作,后者正在为工程师设计一台小型计算机。他们一起设计的 "FLEX "具有鲜明的图形和窗口功能,并将其称为 "个人电脑"。

在研究FLEX的过程中,凯目睹了道格拉斯-恩格尔巴特(Douglas Engelbart)为支持协作工作小组而设计的互动计算的演示。恩格尔巴特的观点影响了凯,让他采用图形界面、超文本和鼠标。其他影响因素还有:JOSS,一个支持12个个人工作站的系统;GRAIL,一个旨在通过无模型计算支持人机交流的项目;Understanding Media,一本由Marshall McLuhan写的描述媒体内化的书;Logo,一个旨在帮助儿童通过计算机学习的项目;以及平板显示器。

在考虑了这些技术和想法之后,凯做了一个带有平板显示屏幕和触控笔的平板式个人电脑的纸板模型。当时的技术无法捕捉到凯对个人计算的愿景,但他从摩尔定律中知道,最终它将会实现。凯继续在FLEX项目上工作,并在1969年完成了他的博士工作。他的论文被称为 "反应式引擎"。

从犹他州毕业后,凯成为斯坦福大学人工智能实验室的一名研究员,并开发了编程语言。他开始思考未来有书本大小的计算机。受Logo项目的影响,他特别想看看孩子们将如何使用它们,并绘制了 "KiddieKomputers "的草图。这些想法后来被整合到阿尔托电脑的设计中。

1971年,凯加入了施乐公司的帕洛阿尔托研究中心(PARC)。PARC由施乐公司于1970年成立,为 "未来的办公室 "做长期研究。凯被聘为学习研究小组的负责人,他确立了以下目标。

创造小型计算机如何在不同学科领域使用的例子。
研究小型计算机如何帮助扩大用户的视觉和听觉技能。
让儿童花时间学习计算机,并尝试用个人的方式来理解计算机过程。
报告儿童对计算机及其软件的意外使用。
凯是施乐公司(Xerox PARC)开发工具的一支有远见的力量,将计算机转变为一种新的主要通信媒介。他的信条是:"预测未来的最好方法是发明它"。他的一个有远见的概念是Dynabook,这是一种功能强大的便携式电子设备,大小与三环笔记本相当,带有触摸敏感的液晶屏和一个输入信息的键盘。凯因发明了成为未来的想法而被认可。笔记本、笔记本电脑和平板电脑都起源于Dynabook的早期概念。

凯还意识到,计算机可以成为一种 "元媒体"--它可以融合所有其他媒体。作为一种新的媒介,计算机可以产生与古腾堡印刷术一样的影响。麦克卢汉关于印刷机的文化影响的观点影响了凯对 "Dynabook "这个名字的选择,因为计算机能产生动态的信息表现,而不是静态的书页。

人们需要一种与新的计算机媒介进行互动的方法。为了帮助解决这个问题,凯和他的实验室成员创造了图形界面和Smalltalk编程语言。

凯的界面设计理念是基于杰罗姆-布鲁纳的学习研究,他受到了让-皮亚杰的影响。布鲁纳继续研究,认为人的头脑有多种智能。在界面设计中使用学习理论,有助于凯氏开发儿童可以使用的计算机技术。

布鲁纳认为存在着不同的学习心态,这给凯提出了一个界面设计的模型,叫做 "用图像做符号"。做 "就是用鼠标进行互动,"图像 "就是计算机屏幕上的图标,"符号 "就是SmallTalk编程语言。

SmallTalk最初被设计为一种图形编程语言。然而,它很快成为一个完整的集成编程环境,具有调试器、面向对象的虚拟存储器、编辑器、屏幕管理和用户界面。SmallTalk是第一个动态的面向对象的编程语言。它运行在Alto计算机上,由Butler Lampson设想并由Charles P. Thacker设计(两人都是图灵奖得主)。Alto是朝着小型强大的个人电脑方向迈出的一步,它被认为是一个临时的Dynabook。

凯在80年代初离开施乐PARC,搬到了洛杉矶。1983年,凯在加入苹果电脑之前为雅达利公司工作了一年。在苹果时,他的研究团队开发了Squeak,一种开源的SmallTalk语言。1997年,凯将他的团队转移到迪斯尼的幻想工程部门,继续他在Squeak上的工作。五年后,他成立了观点研究所,一个致力于支持儿童教育媒体的非营利组织。

凯还在惠普公司担任高级研究员一职,直到2005年。他曾在纽约大学的互动电信项目、加州大学洛杉矶分校、京都大学和麻省理工学院教授课程。

艾伦-凯被一些人认为是 "个人电脑之父",因为他在20世纪70年代设想了一个小型的计算系统,当时笔记本电脑还没有出现。每个孩子一台笔记本电脑计划和儿童机器都采用了他关于儿童和学习的概念。他对计算机科学最重要的贡献是,他致力于将计算机变成一个支持创造性思维的动态个人媒介。他继续探索让儿童能够使用计算机的方法。

作者:。苏珊-B-巴恩斯
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