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2014 迈克尔-斯顿布拉克

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Michael Stonebraker
BIRTH:
October 11, 1943 in Newburyport, Mass.

EDUCATION:
Bachelor’s degree in Electrical Engineering (Princeton University, 1965); M.Sc. in Electrical Engineering (University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, 1967); Ph.D. in Computer Science & Engineering (University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, 1971).

EXPERIENCE
Assistant Professor of Computer Science (University of California at Berkeley, 1971--1976), Associate Professor (1976-1982), Professor (1982-1993), Professor of the Graduate School (1994-1999); Senior Lecturer (Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 2001-2) Adjunct Professor (2002-Present). Concurrently co-founded and held executive or advisory roles with companies including Relational Technology, Inc. (founded 1980, later Ingres Corporation), Illustra Corporation (founded 1992, later acquired by Informix where Stonebraker was Chief Technology Officer 1996-2000), Cohera Corporation (1997, acquired by PeopleSoft), StreamBase Systems (2003, acquired by Tibco in 2013), Vertica Systems (2005, acquired by HP), Goby (2008, acquired by Telenauv in 2012), SciDB (2008), VoltDB (2009), and Tamr (2013).

HONORS AND AWARDS:
ACM System Software Award (1992); ACM SIGMOD Innovation Award (1994); National Academy of Engineering (elected 1998); IEEE John von Neumann Medal (2005); Alan M. Turing Award (2014).

MICHAEL STONEBRAKER DL Author Profile link
United States – 2014
CITATION
For fundamental contributions to the concepts and practices underlying modern database systems.

SHORT ANNOTATED
BIBLIOGRAPHY
ACM TURING AWARD
LECTURE VIDEO
RESEARCH
SUBJECTS
ADDITIONAL
MATERIALS
VIDEO INTERVIEW
Michael Stonebraker’s contributions to the refinement and spread of database management technology are hard to overstate. He began work in this area as a young assistant professor at the University of California—Berkeley. After reading Edgar F. Codd’s seminal papers on the relational model, Stonebraker started work with a colleague, Eugene Wong, to develop an efficient and practical implementation.

Stonebraker explains how he shifted his focus to database research after discovering the work of Ted Codd.       
The result was INGRES, a name that reflected the project’s original intention to produce a geographically-oriented system with graphical capabilities. This officially stood for “Interactive Graphic and Retrieval System” but echoed the name of a celebrated French painter.

A prototype of INGRES was working by 1974, but the project did not stop there. Over the next decade INGRES, and systems inspired by it, built a new commercial market of relational database systems. Today the relational database management system is one of computing’s most important and widely used technologies, having replaced filing cabinets as the standard way of storing and retrieving information.

Development of INGRES

Stonebraker led development of INGRES at Berkeley until 1985, supported by grant money and the labor of graduate and undergraduate students. Berkeley was particularly notable during this era as a place where theoretical research and system building came together with spectacular results. Further examples included the work on timesharing systems by Butler Lampson (winner 1992) and others and the Berkeley Software Distribution (BSD) of the Unix operating system, which gave rise to a commonly used form of open source licensing. These cultures and practices anticipated much of what we now associate with the open source software movement. Stonebraker remembers that “we would recruit the smartest freshmen and sophomores we could find, give them wonderful equipment, and they would basically die writing code for us.”

Stonebraker partnered with Eugene Wong to develop INGRES, one of the first relational database management systems.       
Stonebraker’s work built on, and complemented, that of three other Turing award winners. Academic research into database management technology has had an unusually direct connection to the widely used industrial-strength systems underlying the websites, business applications, scientific breakthroughs, social media systems, and “big data” projects of the modern world. Charles W. Bachman (winner 1973) designed what is often called the first database management system in the early 1960s, and helped to define and popularize the concept of a database management system through his later work with the industry group CODASYL. Edgar F. Codd (winner 1981) developed an elegant and flexible way of storing and retrieving data, the relational model, which gradually eclipsed the network data model over the course of the 1980s. James Nicholas Gray (winner 1988) contributed to IBM’s System R, an influential experimental implementation of the relational model, and later pioneered robust, high performance methods for record locking and transaction processing.

Legacy of INGRES

INGRES and System R together helped to turn relational systems from a laboratory curiosity into the default choice for even the most demanding data processing applications. While the IBM prototype targeted the company’s multi-million dollar mainframes, INGRES was a Unix application suitable for relatively affordable minicomputers and was widely distributed to other universities where people used it, experimented with it, and extensively modified it.

INGRES brought a new kind of database technology to a new kind of computer. Database management systems were widely adopted by businesses from the early 1970s onwards as central hubs which managed the data used by many different application programs. These early commercial systems ran on mainframes and followed either Bachman’s network model or a more restrictive hierarchical approach favored by IBM. In the mainframe world these approaches remained dominant throughout the 1980s so that, for example, IBM first commercialized its work in the area as a niche product for “decision support” analytical applications rather than workaday operational systems.

During the 1970s, minicomputers became a cost-effective alternative to mainframes for an ever widening range of applications. Thanks to INGRES and its derivatives, relational technology became the default choice for minicomputer databases, as the new technology was widely applied to transaction processing applications (keeping routine records of things like address changes or account updates) as well as analytical work. The commercial database systems of the 1970s required their users to navigate through data structures at a relatively low level, making explicit decisions about how to index and link records when the database was created and navigating record by record through these structures when retrieving information. Relational database systems shifted to a more abstract and flexible view of data. Only when querying the database did users specify how data from different tables should be combined. This shifted much of the responsibility for efficiently organizing and retrieving data from the user to the database management software, pushing hard against the limits of affordable hardware.

INGRES was a feat of virtuoso software engineering, prioritizing performance and reliability so that new features were added only once a way of implementing them efficiently had been discovered. By 1976 INGRES was rapidly executing queries written in its QUEL query language (roughly equivalent to the SEQUEL, later SQL, language introduced by IBM). It could be embedded in C programs or used interactively. Under the hood, INGRES implemented a variety of indexing and compression methods, automatically optimizing queries. The team had already begun to add support for transactions, so that related updates would occur together--or not at all--to enforce integrity constraints between related records in different tables, and to deal with the potential problems caused by simultaneous updates from different users. Additional features, such as crash recovery and efficient backup and restore capabilities, turned INGRES from a research project to an industrial-strength technology. This took a huge amount of additional work. As Stonebraker recalled, “We built an initial prototype, putting in the first 90% of the effort required to create a real system, and it more or less worked. I think that the thing that distinguished INGRES from the typical academic project, and in retrospect one of the smartest things we ever did, was to then put in the next 90% of the effort to make INGRES really work.”

In the late 1970s, Stonebraker set up a company to support the commercial development of INGRES.       
Students trained on the INGRES project, and in many cases using the INGRES code itself as a starting point, produced most of the leading minicomputer database packages. These included Britton-Lee (an early supplier of specialized parallel processing database management systems), the NonStop SQL product offered by Tandem Computers, and Sybase (whose SQL Server was later licensed by Microsoft). In 1980 Stonebraker himself co-founded Relational Technology, Inc. to produce its own commercial version of INGRES. His involvement with the firm was primarily as a consultant, though he worked there full time for around six months. It was a significant player in the database software market over the next decade, making an initial public offering in 1988 before being acquired in 1990.

Postgres

By this point Stonebraker was already immersed in the development and commercialization of a successor system. Postgres added many features missing from existing relational systems, including support for rules to maintain consistent relationships between tables, support for complex “object-relational” data types, the replication of data across servers, and procedural languages to embed code fragments within the database management system to be triggered when specified conditions occured.

Stonebraker explains the goals of Postgres, the follow-up to INGRES.       
Postgres was also used to experiment with other features of interest to database researchers. Techniques pioneered in Postgres were widely implemented, and in 1992 Stonebraker cofounded Illustra Information Technologies to market a commercial version. It was acquired in 1997 by Informix, which rebuilt its product line around the code.

Entrepreneurial Career

Stonebraker retired from Berkeley in 1994, retaining a connection as a “Professor of the Graduate School.” In 1999 he moving to New Hampshire, soon taking up an adjunct appointment at MIT where he could focus on developing and commercializing new technologies without the obligation of regular faculty responsibilities. Since then he has cofounded a company every few years, focusing on the development of database management technologies specialized for particular areas such as data warehousing (Vertica), managing data streams captured by sensors (StreamBase Systems), and high-throughput transaction processing (VoltDB). However one of his latest ventures, SciDB, which focuses on handling massive arrays of scientific data, departs from the relational model as well as from traditional general purpose implementation techniques.

As an eloquent and authoritative commentator on trends in database technology, Stonebraker has defended the enduring power of the relational model against efforts by the “NoSQL” movement to promote the superiority of “post-relational” approaches. At the same time, he has been critical of the assumption that “one size fits all” when implementing relational database management systems and that dominant general purpose systems, such as Oracle, can serve the needs of all users.

Stonebraker is the only Turing award winner to have engaged in serial entrepreneurship on anything like this scale, giving him a distinctive perspective on the academic world. The connection of theory to practice has often been controversial in database research, despite the foundational contribution of mathematical logic to modern database management systems. Stonebraker has been critical of the insularity of some researchers, noting the attention given to such ideas as recursive querying or object-oriented databases suggests that “they are more interested in working on problems that are solvable, rather than problems that are important.” His “advice to theoreticians” was “go spend some time in the real world and work on problems that people want solved.” In contrast, “Knowing what I know now, I would never have started building INGRES, because it’s too hard…. So I think my advice to my younger self would be to suspend your disbelief and just do it anyway. The way you climb Mt. Everest is one step at a time…”

(Quotations from Stonebraker are taken from his interview with Marianne Winslett, published in ACM SIGMOD Record, Vol.32, No. 2, June 2003 as "Michael Stonebraker Speaks Out.")

Author: Thomas Haigh



迈克尔-斯顿布拉克
出生地:美国
1943年10月11日在马萨诸塞州纽伯里波特市。

教育经历。
电气工程学士(普林斯顿大学,1965年);电气工程硕士(密歇根大学,安阿伯,1967年);计算机科学与工程博士(密歇根大学,安阿伯,1971年)。

工作经历
计算机科学助理教授(加州大学伯克利分校,1971-1976),副教授(1976-1982),教授(1982-1993),研究生院教授(1994-1999);高级讲师(麻省理工学院,2001-2)兼职教授(2002-至今)。同时共同创立了一些公司并担任执行或顾问职务,包括Relational Technology, Inc. (1980年成立,后来被Ingres公司收购)、Illustra公司(1992年成立,后来被Informix公司收购,Stonebraker在1996-2000年担任首席技术官)、Cohera公司(1997年被PeopleSoft收购)、StreamBase系统(2003年被Tibco在2013年收购)、Vertica系统(2005年被HP收购)、Goby(2008年被Telenauv在2012年收购)、SciDB(2008)、VoltDB(2009)、Tamr(2013)。

荣誉和奖项。
ACM系统软件奖(1992年);ACM SIGMOD创新奖(1994年);国家工程院(1998年当选);IEEE John von Neumann奖章(2005年);Alan M. Turing奖(2014年)。

MICHAEL STONEBRAKER DL作者简介链接
美国 - 2014年
嘉奖
对现代数据库系统基础概念和实践的基本贡献。

简短注释
书目
亚马逊图灵奖
讲座视频
研究
主题
额外的
材料
采访视频
迈克尔-斯顿布拉克对数据库管理技术的完善和推广的贡献是难以言表的。他作为加利福尼亚大学伯克利分校的年轻助理教授开始了这方面的工作。在阅读了Edgar F. Codd关于关系模型的开创性论文后,Stonebraker开始与同事Eugene Wong合作,开发一种高效实用的实现方式。

Stonebraker解释说,在发现Ted Codd的工作后,他如何将重点转移到数据库研究。       
结果是INGRES,这个名字反映了项目的初衷,即生产一个具有图形功能的地理导向系统。这正式代表了 "交互式图形和检索系统",但与一位著名的法国画家的名字相呼应。

到1974年,INGRES的一个原型已经开始工作,但该项目并没有就此停止。在接下来的十年里,INGRES和受其启发的系统建立了一个新的关系数据库系统的商业市场。今天,关系数据库管理系统是计算机最重要和最广泛使用的技术之一,已经取代了文件柜成为存储和检索信息的标准方式。

INGRES的发展

Stonebraker在伯克利领导了INGRES的开发,直到1985年,他得到了拨款和研究生及本科生的劳动支持。在这一时期,伯克利特别值得一提的是,理论研究和系统建设结合在一起,取得了惊人的成果。更多的例子包括巴特勒-兰普森(赢家1992)和其他人在分时系统上的工作,以及Unix操作系统的伯克利软件发行(BSD),它产生了一种常用的开放源码许可形式。这些文化和实践预示了我们现在与开源软件运动相关的许多东西。斯通布拉克记得,"我们会招募我们能找到的最聪明的大一和大二学生,给他们最好的设备,而他们基本上会死命为我们写代码"。

斯通布拉克与尤金-黄合作开发了INGRES,这是最早的关系型数据库管理系统之一。       
斯通布拉克的工作建立在其他三位图灵奖得主的基础上,并对他们的工作进行了补充。对数据库管理技术的学术研究与现代世界的网站、商业应用、科学突破、社交媒体系统和 "大数据 "项目所依据的广泛使用的工业强度系统有着不同寻常的直接联系。查尔斯-W-巴赫曼(1973年获奖者)在20世纪60年代初设计了通常被称为第一个数据库管理系统的系统,并通过他后来与行业团体CODASYL的合作帮助定义和普及了数据库管理系统的概念。埃德加-F-科德(Edgar F. Codd)(1981年获奖者)开发了一种优雅而灵活的数据存储和检索方式,即关系模型,该模型在20世纪80年代的过程中逐渐使网络数据模型失色。詹姆斯-尼古拉斯-格雷(1988年获奖者)为IBM的R系统做出了贡献,该系统是关系模型的一个有影响力的实验性实现,后来还开创了记录锁定和事务处理的稳健、高性能方法。

INGRES的遗产

INGRES和System R一起帮助将关系型系统从实验室的好奇心变成了最苛刻的数据处理应用的默认选择。虽然IBM的原型以该公司价值数百万美元的大型机为目标,但INGRES是一个Unix应用程序,适用于相对负担得起的微型计算机,并被广泛分发到其他大学,人们在那里使用它,用它做实验,并广泛地修改它。

INGRES将一种新的数据库技术带到了一种新的计算机上。从20世纪70年代初开始,数据库管理系统被企业广泛采用,作为管理许多不同应用程序使用的数据的中心枢纽。这些早期的商业系统在大型机上运行,并遵循Bachman的网络模型或IBM青睐的更严格的分层方法。在大型机领域,这些方法在整个80年代仍然占主导地位,因此,例如,IBM首先将其在该领域的工作商业化,作为 "决策支持 "分析应用的利基产品,而不是日常操作系统。

在20世纪70年代,微型计算机在越来越广泛的应用中成为主机的一个具有成本效益的替代品。由于INGRES及其衍生产品的出现,关系技术成为微型计算机数据库的默认选择,因为这种新技术被广泛地应用于交易处理应用(保存地址变更或账户更新等常规记录)以及分析工作。20世纪70年代的商业数据库系统要求其用户在相对较低的水平上浏览数据结构,在数据库创建时对如何索引和链接记录做出明确的决定,并在检索信息时在这些结构中逐条记录导航。关系型数据库系统转向了对数据更抽象和灵活的看法。只有在查询数据库的时候,用户才会指定来自不同表格的数据应该如何组合。这就把有效地组织和检索数据的责任从用户身上转移到了数据库管理软件上,这对可负担得起的硬件的限制起到了很大的推动作用。

INGRES是一项精湛的软件工程壮举,它将性能和可靠性放在首位,因此只有在发现有效实现这些功能的方法后才会增加新的功能。到1976年,INGRES迅速执行了用其QUEL查询语言(大致相当于IBM推出的SEQUEL,后来的SQL语言)编写的查询。它可以被嵌入到C程序中,也可以交互使用。在引擎盖下,INGRES实现了各种索引和压缩方法,自动优化了查询。该团队已经开始增加对事务的支持,这样相关的更新将一起发生--或者根本不发生--以强制执行不同表中相关记录之间的完整性约束,并处理不同用户同时更新所引起的潜在问题。额外的功能,如崩溃恢复和有效的备份和恢复能力,使INGRES从一个研究项目变成了一个具有工业实力的技术。这需要大量的额外工作。正如Stonebraker所回忆的,"我们建立了一个最初的原型,投入了创建一个真正的系统所需的90%的努力,而且它或多或少地起作用。我认为,将INGRES与典型的学术项目区分开来的事情,以及现在回想起来,我们所做的最聪明的事情之一,就是在接下来的90%的努力中,使INGRES真正发挥作用。"

在20世纪70年代末,Stonebraker成立了一家公司,以支持INGRES的商业开发。       
在INGRES项目上接受培训的学生,在许多情况下使用INGRES代码本身作为起点,制作了大多数领先的微型计算机数据库包。这些产品包括Britton-Lee(专门的并行处理数据库管理系统的早期供应商)、Tandem Computers提供的NonStop SQL产品和Sybase(其SQL Server后来被微软授权)。1980年,Stonebraker自己共同创立了Relational Technology, Inc.,以生产其自己的商业版本的INGRES。他在该公司的参与主要是作为顾问,尽管他在那里全职工作了大约6个月。在接下来的十年里,该公司在数据库软件市场上是一个重要的参与者,在1990年被收购之前,于1988年进行了首次公开募股。

Postgres

此时,Stonebraker已经沉浸在一个后续系统的开发和商业化中。Postgres增加了许多现有关系型系统所缺乏的功能,包括支持规则以维持表之间的一致关系,支持复杂的 "对象-关系 "数据类型,在服务器之间复制数据,以及在数据库管理系统中嵌入代码片段以在指定条件发生时触发的程序性语言。

Stonebraker解释了Postgres的目标,它是INGRES的后续。       
Postgres也被用来试验数据库研究人员感兴趣的其他功能。在Postgres中开创的技术被广泛实施,1992年Stonebraker共同创立了Illustra信息技术公司,销售商业版本。它在1997年被Informix公司收购,Informix公司围绕该代码重建了其产品线。

企业家生涯

1994年,Stonebraker从伯克利大学退休,保留了 "研究生院教授 "的身份。1999年,他搬到了新罕布什尔州,很快在麻省理工学院担任兼职,在那里他可以专注于新技术的开发和商业化,而不需要承担正常的教员责任。从那时起,他每隔几年就联合创办一家公司,专注于开发专门用于特定领域的数据库管理技术,如数据仓库(Vertica),管理由传感器捕获的数据流(StreamBase Systems),以及高吞吐量交易处理(VoltDB)。然而,他最新的一项投资,SciDB,专注于处理大量的科学数据阵列,脱离了关系模型以及传统的通用实施技术。

作为数据库技术趋势的雄辩和权威评论家,Stonebraker捍卫了关系模型的持久力量,反对 "NoSQL "运动对 "后关系 "方法的优越性的宣传。同时,他一直批评在实施关系型数据库管理系统时 "一刀切 "的假设,并认为主导的通用系统,如Oracle,可以满足所有用户的需求。

斯通布拉克是唯一一个从事过类似这种规模的连续创业的图灵奖得主,这使他对学术界有了独特的看法。尽管数理逻辑对现代数据库管理系统有基础性的贡献,但在数据库研究中,理论与实践的联系往往是有争议的。Stonebraker对一些研究人员的孤陋寡闻持批评态度,他指出,对递归查询或面向对象的数据库等思想的关注表明,"他们更愿意研究可解决的问题,而不是重要的问题"。他的 "对理论家的建议 "是 "去花些时间在现实世界中,研究人们想要解决的问题"。相比之下,"如果知道我现在所知道的,我永远不会开始建立INGRES,因为它太难了....。因此,我认为我对年轻的自己的建议是,暂停你的怀疑,无论如何都要去做。攀登珠穆朗玛峰的方法是一步一步来......"

(Stonebraker的语录摘自他对Marianne Winslett的采访,发表在ACM SIGMOD记录,第32卷,第2期,2003年6月,题为 "Michael Stonebraker说出来"。)

作者。Thomas Haigh
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